The document output by Collatex is plain text that holds critical apparatus tagging, and represents a first phase of up-translation to a new and improved TEI document. The next stage would be to apply auto-tagging with regular expressions to reconstruct the body of the edition in TEI as a single document from which multiple editions can be generated for reading and for genetic studying of textual variation over time.
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Though our initial goal was to revise and improve the existing edition on Romantic Circles, we realized that we had an opportunity to produce a much richer edition, if we could incorporate a rarely studied edition of the novel into our collation. Incorporating this edition requires OCR of a Google Books scanned edition and careful correction to prepare a text file formatted consistently with the files representing the and editions.
Series: Frankenstein Universe
Finally, we would include pointers into the Shelley-Godwin Archive edition of the manuscript notebook drafts of the novel. List elements were used to hold paragraphs, for example, and we learned that the TEI had been generated from an XSLT process of translation from a previous digital edition, the Pennsylvania Electronic hypertext edition produced in the s. I feared the vengeance of the disappointed fiend, yet I was unable to overcome my repugnance to the task which was enjoined me.
I found that I could not compose a female without again devoting several months to profound study and laborious disquisition.
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I had heard of some discoveries having been made by an English philosopher, the knowledge of which was material to my success, and I sometimes thought of obtaining my father's consent to visit England for this purpose; but I clung to every pretence of delay, and shrunk from taking the first step in an undertaking whose immediate necessity began to appear less absolute to me. A change indeed had taken place in me: my health, which had hitherto declined, was now much restored; and my spirits, when unchecked by the memory of my unhappy promise, rose proportionably.
My father saw this change with pleasure, and he turned his thoughts towards the best method of eradicating the remains of my melancholy, which every now and then would return by fits, and with a devouring blackness overcast the approaching sunshine. At these moments I took refuge in the most perfect solitude. I passed whole days on the lake alone in a little boat, watching the clouds, and listening to the rippling of the waves, silent and listless.
But the fresh air and bright sun seldom failed to restore me to some degree of composure; and, on my return, I met the salutations of my friends with a readier smile and a more cheerful heart. The latter method of obtaining the desired intelligence was dilatory and unsatisfactory: besides, I had an insurmountable aversion to the idea of engaging myself in my loathsome task in my father's house, while in habits of familiar intercourse with those I loved. I knew that a thousand fearful accidents might occur, the slightest of which would disclose a tale to thrill all connected with me with horror.
I was aware also that I should often lose all self-command, all capacity of hiding the harrowing sensations that would possess me during the progress of my unearthly occupation.
ISBN 13: 9789700743653
I must absent myself from all I loved while thus employed. Once commenced, it would quickly be achieved, and I might be restored to my family in peace and happiness. My promise fulfilled, the monster would depart for ever. Or so my fond fancy imaged some accident might meanwhile occur to destroy him, and put an end to my slavery for ever. In October we experimented with text extracted directly from the Romantic Circles and editions, and processed these with CollateX. The experience showed us worrisome problems at the level of the text, angle brackets poised in the text and other anomalies such as misnumbering and missing italics.
We decided that perhaps the transformation that the digital Frankenstein had undergone in for Romantic Circles republication was not kind to the text and that to work with a reliable foundation for our bicentennial edition, we should return to its origin in the early s hypertext Pennsylvania Electronic Edition. We also determined that we had better proof check the texts of all documents against originals. What we may have considered an up-transformation to meet new web standards in appears to us on close inspection to have potentially damaged a cleaner earlier encoding. The Pennyslvania Electronic Edition PAEE represents a much more extensive scholarly effort than what is rendered of it on its supposedly updated version on Romantic Circles.
While neither edition renders the text, whose publication was supervised by William Godwin, the PAEE prepared a table of hand-collected variants indicating how the edition differs from the and Meanwhile, what appears of the better-known early and late publications is rendered side-by-side in old-fashioned long since deprecated HTML frames built from separate HTML files each usually representing a few paragraphs of the and files of the longer novel.
The particulation of files represents an editorial method of juxtaposition of tiny pieces, in keeping with the hypercard format of early hypertext books. The early editors Stuart Curran and Jack Lynch of the University of Pennsyvlania , took care to produce a highly legible, color-coded collation in hypertext, and while dates of preparation or publication are not clear in the files, a short web publication about the edition by Curran from November in Penn Magazine indicates the production was well underway at that moment, with plans for release of a CD-ROM edition and non-profit production on the web.
Curran described his aim as an assault on print-bound habits of reading: Multiply these possibilities by the large number of ancillary texts, and you have a sense of what an assault this technology portends on a normative, atomistic conception of the act of reading. Rather, one is faced with dozens of possibilities at once, literally replicating the ways intertextual allusions play against and within any literary work of dimension and intellectual ambition.
What is immediately evident is the precision and care taken in the first edition, even in its apparent lack of awareness of the TEI as it was developing an alternate SGML form in the mid s. Looking back on origins of our electronic Frankenstein monster, we see something of a history of strained relations between chunky hypertext books and creamy TEI which in those days applied SGML in favor of the semantics of document hierarchies to show interrelationships. In , we preparers of a new edition just like our predecessors are standing on the proverbial shoulders of giants, and if we are single-minded about preparing the documents in a format we can readily process and publish, we stand potentially to lose the scholarship and the impressive mass of paratext surrounding that first edition.
We underestimate these early editions to our peril or to our potential cultural impoverishment.
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Indeed, the PAEE contains hundreds of paratext documents, including an impressive corpus of other literary texts in its Works Included in this Edition bordering on and relevant to Frankenstein , as well an impressive array of Contexts pages covering religious, mythical, geographic, scientific topics. Whether we can help preserve the vision of the first editors in interlinking contextual materials with their critical variorum edition, or whether we should try to do so, are open questions at this stage in our work on the Bicentennial Frankenstein project.
My concentration for this paper is on a stage of what is completed already, and my sustained interaction with the PAEE hypertext edition. We first decided to process a predictable plain text with pseudomarkup to preserve information from the markup, and we decided that each stage of our up-conversion would produce a distinct and re-usable edition in its own right, whether in plain text, or a preliminary stage of XML for collation, or ultimately the collated edition in TEI P5. At the time of preparation, we were uncertain whether plain text of simple XML formatting was best suited for collation processing, and in the course of that processing we discovered indeed that XML was preferable since the collation software could be programmed to read and process and ignore particular elements.
The pseudomarkup in our plain text, however, served and continues potentially to serve as a viable intermediary format, trivally easy to up-translate into XML, and co-existing alongside its hierarchially organized kin. We began, then, by producing plain text from the old PAEE hypercards. The following documents my decisions and actions taken on the s files to prepare them as plain text editions, prior to collation. Close tags were applied and the files were simplified to carry only the title page, prefacing material, and text of the novel.
Sometimes, stuff that is there in the source simply goes AWOL in the translation. This is related to the fact the NMT systems attempt to find a most likely translation, and unless you add special provisions, they often settle for a shorter output. This can be fatal if the omitted word happens to be a negation. Hypnotic recursion. Very soon after Google Translate switched to neural for some of its language combinations, people started noticing odd behaviors, often involving loops of repeated phrases. Which is actually pretty adequate for Lynch, if you think about it. Learning too much.
This is about pattern recognition, and the training corpus often contains patterns that are not linguistic in nature. Since when is mile a translation of kilometer? And did the system just learn to convert between the two? To some extent, yes. You will have guessed by now: numbers are a problem.
There are way too many of them critters to fit into a 50k-vocabulary, and they often behave in odd ways in bilingual texts attested in the wild. Once you stray away from round numbers that probably occur a lot in the training corpus, trouble begins. Finally, data matters. No le voy a contar a la profesora.
Necesito un whisky. And those jokes tended to be a lot less repetitive, too. It turns out people are using almost the same technology to build chatbots with neural networks. If you think about it, the problem can indeed be defined in the same terms. In translation, you have a corpus of source segments and their translations; you collect a lot of these, and train a system to give the right translation for the right source. In a chatbot, your segment pairs are prompts and responses, and you train the system to give the right response to the right prompt. For me, this is a key and unanticipated takeaway from the experiment.
We set out to build a crazy translator, but unwittingly we ended up solving a different problem and created a massively uninspired bilingual chatbot. Beyond any doubt, the more important outcome for me is the power of neural MT. We basically achieved this with an out-of-the-box tool, the right kind of hardware, and freely available data.
If that is the baseline, then I am thrilled by the potential of NMT with a serious approach.
Black Gold (Edit)
They are all over the press, after all, with enthusiastic predictions that in a very short time, they will pass the Turing test, the ultimate proof of human intelligence. There is something going on in the background that humans understand, but which completely eludes a pattern recognition machine.
For a neural network, a random sequence of letters in a foreign language is as predictable a response as a genuine answer given by a real human in the original language.
It would be a splendid exercise in creative writing to come up with a short story for both of them. Any of us could do it in a breeze, and the stories would be pretty amusing. There is an infinite number of realities where these short conversations make perfect sense to a human, and there is an infinite number of realities where they make no sense at all.
In neither case can the response be predicted, in any meaningful way, from the prompt or the preceding conversation. On the level our systems comprehend reality, a random segment in a foreign language is as good a response as Poor Mary! She then wrote Frankenstein. Frankenstein is infused with some elements of the Gothic novel and the Romantic movement and is also considered to be one of the earliest examples of science fiction. Brian Aldiss has argued that it should be considered the first true science fiction story, because unlike in previous stories with fantastical elements resembling those of later science fiction, the central character "makes a deliberate decision" and "turns to modern experiments in the laboratory" to achieve fantastic results.
It has had a considerable influence across literature and popular culture and spawned a complete genre of horror stories, films, and plays. The numerical value of frankenstein in Pythagorean Numerology is: 1. We live in a Newtonian world of Einsteinian physics ruled by Frankenstein logic. Knowledge is knowing Frankenstein is not the monster, but wisdom is knowing he was.
In some sense, Ultima has a fairly simplified geology, a bit like Frankenstein here, ultima Thule has a lot more stuff here going on.